The exceptional view of quality sees quality as something special. Traditionally, quality refers to something distinctive and elitist, and, in educational terms is linked to notions of excellence, of 'high quality' unattainable by most.
2.Quality as Perfection
Quality as perfection sees quality as a consistent or flawless outcome. In a sense it 'democratizes' the notion of quality and if consistency can be achieved then quality can be attained by all.3. Quality as Fitness for purpose
Quality as fitness for purpose sees quality in terms of fulfilling a customer's requirements, needs or desires. Theoretically, the customer specifies requirements. In education, fitness for purpose is usually based on the ability of an institution to fulfill its mission or a programme of study to fulfill its aims.4. Quality as Value for Money
Quality as value for money sees quality in terms of return on investment. If the same outcome can be achieved at a lower cost, or a better outcome can be achieved at the same cost, then the 'customer' has a quality product or service. The growing tendency for governments to require accountability from higher education reflects a value-for-money approach. Increasingly students require value-for-money for the increasing cost to them of higher education.5. Quality as Trans formation
Quality as transformation is a classic notion of quality that sees it in terms of change from one state to another. In educational terms, transformation refers to the enhancement and empowerment of students or the development of new knowledge.